Practice and Theory in Systems of Education

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Editorial Board

Volume 5 Number 3 2010
ISSN 1788-2591 (Online)
ISSN 1788-2583 (Printed)

Language Etiquette and Culture in Teaching of Foreign Languages,
pages 205-218

Most of the time people learn foreign languages for communication - to be able to speak and understand. In the early stages of the teaching of any foreign language, teachers introduce language etiquette of the studied language for better understanding and appreciation of aspects of the culture. This is partly due to the fact in many cases language learning starts from "Hello", or "My name is..." etc., and also there are major differences between the studied and native languages which describe these languages and their speakers. This indicates that language etiquette should be a part of any language teaching and learning process. The learning of foreign languages at any level is characterized by the interplay of many factors such as mother tongue, culture, educational background, psychological factors, among others. A difficult task that faces an instructor is the development of the socio-cultural competence in teaching a foreign language. In the University of Ghana, students have the opportunity to study Russian language and literature as part of the course content. This paper discusses some challenges in the teaching Russian language in the University of Ghana. Analysis shows that irrespective of the fact, that many Ghanaians speak one other Ghanaian language in addition to their mother tongue, and English which is the official language, and some people also speak French, there is a major challenge in teaching Russian in Ghana as a foreign language. Thus, multilingualism is a useful but not sufficient condition for the effective learning of a language. The paper argues that one reason that makes it difficult to teach Russian as a foreign language is the social and cultural differences and the wide geographical distance between Ghana and Russia.

Merita ISARAJ:
A Comparative Study of Imperative Sentences in English and Albanian Language,
pages 219-226

This article focuses on the syntax and structure of imperative sentences in English and Albanian language. Imperative is commonly used to express a command, an order or a request. These sentences generally have no subject and may have either the main verb or an auxiliary in the base form followed by the appropriate form of the main verb. Concerning the clause patterns of imperative sentences, they have the same patterns as declaratives. They imply a wide range of illocutionary acts depending on the situational context. The article is concentrated on the similarities and differences that both languages demonstrate. By analyzing and comparing the traditional verb forms included in the imperative paradigm, the grammatical categories specific to English and Albanian, including other mood forms conveying the imperative meanings, we present a full description of the morphology of imperatives. We analyze the word order, the nature of the imperative subjects and problems related to that, negative imperative as well as the use of other elements such as adverbs or particle and their function in these sentences, in order to introduce a thorough analysis of the syntax of imperative sentences. Although both languages obviously display distinctions, as we know English has a rigid word order while Albanian has a richer verbal morphology and freer word order, they still possess similarities in the structure of clause patterns, range of illocutionary force, issues related to subject and negative imperative. Thus this article is an empirical and comparative account about the captured similarities and distinctions of imperative in both languages.

Valentin Cosmin BLANDUL, Viorica BANCIU, Florentina Adriana BLANDUL:
The Role of English Language Teaching in Achieving an Intercultural Education,
pages 227-232

The most important human feature is the need for knowledge. Man has always wanted to go beyond his, confined, native space. The motivation for such an action was the desire to expand his/her cultural universe. Thus, man craved for learning about the way of life of others like him, yet different. Cultures came into contact influencing and enriching each-other. Interculturality is thus the process of mixing cultures, and intercultural exchanges bring about a whole. Every nation has its own culture, but a cultural exchange implies universality, a combining of all cultures that work together to bring out the best in humanity.

Anna KUNT:
The Philosophy and Practice of Folkehojskole,
pages 233-242

The Danish Folkehojskoles keep in mind what we ususally tend to forget in our educational system: To understand something with our head is just one thing. But when we understand something with both our mind and heart, that is much more long lasting and prescious. Because knowledge is not the aim. Knowledge is just a tool, but the goal is the life itself.

Disability as an Aspect of Culture,
pages 243-256

The research account provides a review of examination results of junior schoolchildren disabled in learning as a subgroup of a segment of the mentally disabled within the scope of the education of the mentally disabled. The examination, analysis and comparison focus on patterns of behaviour that result in similar conduct of life due to congenial experiences leading to a similar way of life in certain fields. The discovery of the relevant differences and their consequences in the group of locally determined children takes place in periods when their activities are organized by themselves without any outer control. Neuralgic fields of the examination are communication, organization of activities, inter-space regulation, and games as symbolic actions. Besides the pure description and display of the behaviour, the account explores those motives too, that helps to determine the different layers of behaviour deposited on each other and lead to those deep structures that normally remain hidden in the course of everyday life.

School Bullying: The Problems of Internalizing Consequences for Participants in the Literature of the USA,
pages 257-262

School bullying has very likely been with us ever since there were schools. Research on school bullying started in the 1970s with that of Dan Olweus. Bullying is an intentional negative action - either physical or verbal - committed repeatedly by its perpetrator. Its victim - due to an unfavourable position in the power structure of the community - is unable to defend himself or herself against the bully, and is very unlikely to retaliate. Today research is adding newer and newer aspects, viewpoints, and statistical data to the phenomenon of school bullying. Among the research on the dire long term consequences one finds shocking statistics on how clinging the consequences could be. I am summarizing the results of literature in the USA dealing with the internalizing of the consequences of school bullying which affect the teenage years and young adulthood of not just the victim, but those of the bully, and the bully-victim.

Livingstone MAKONDO:
University Students Are Being Failed by the 'Qualified': A Cry From Seven African Universities,
pages 263-276

This article discusses the view that most university teaching staff members are consciously or otherwise, playing significant roles in their students' academic underperformance due to their failure to effectively deliver their lectures and examine their learner's performance. Cases in point are the failure of graduates of whatever level to demonstrate through practice what their academic transcripts declare they have qualified in. By way of foregrounding, this discussion submits that universities teaching staff appears to be 'sacred cows' as the public seems unqualified to question them as they are conferred with the highest qualifications. Data for this comparative action research was gathered from two universities in South Africa and five universities in Zimbabwe through two questionnaires namely, student-lecturer questionnaire and Institutional teaching excellence award questionnaire. Data draws from the researcher's tertiary experience over a period of eight years. From these universities, it emerges that the majority of the teaching staff holds first and second degrees yet they lead students through similar qualification levels. Also, an examination of their qualification profiles reveal that 1419 of the 1892 universities teaching staff members consulted for this study need to be professionally trained or retrained so that they can be fully acquainted with contemporary prerequisite skills that enhances lecturer's service delivery. The article argues that training in lecturing skills, examining skills, critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, independent learning skills among others, is necessary so that they can properly facilitate their students' learning processes. Furthermore, it emerges that the prevalent examining and moderation policies in most of these universities stand in contrast to their universities' stipulated guidelines and international practice for various reasons within this scope. Resultantly, this article denies the myth that seniority always equates to knowledgeability as in many circumstances within the same department the seniors might not be experts in the fields under examination, a scenario which amounts to no moderation. Therefore, lack of adequate examining and moderation modalities have significantly contributed towards the dwindling of academic standards. This discussion therefore implores relevant stakeholders to ensure that university academic teaching members are urged to be sufficiently professionally trained through various approaches to handle diverse teaching and learning environments. Teaching staff members can enroll for short training programmes and/or attend in-house staff enrichment programmes. In addition, universities need teaching staff members to imbibe hands-on initiatives like the institutional teaching excellence award that affords them the chance to be helped through peer assessment in the programmes so that they can sharpen their practice. The subsequent sections of the discussion are devoted to an introduction, background, rationale; methodology and discussion of responses before concluding remarks are made.

Albina SINANI:
Environmental Education: The Challenges of the Rural Population in the Region of Gjirokastra,
pages 277-288

Education is a great power of the Gjirokastra District's rural society. In this article is done a big effort treating economic development after the communist period, an important part of which is education. Within these time limits are combined with concerning issues that affect toward opportunities of the period after the fall of the communist system. This is evident from the allowed documents of the previous years as well as from analyses of different point of views. Having in consideration wide diapason of this object i have aimed to analyze topics of educative changes under the influence of the past and of the present and the important role of social economic factors. This paper is referred to extensive scientific literature and work of new researchers in this area, where the most important part of it is covered by researching work of local researchers Education is very important for farm families of Gjirokastra District to increase incomes and raise living standards and meet the needs for agro-agricultural products. However is noticed the decrease of interest for agriculture and an increase of interest to non-agricultural jobs. It is exactly the role of education that encourages people to leave the farm by completing the socio-economic goals. A concerning problem are the secret escapes that bring digression of social environment. The damage of school networks, decreasing number of enrolled pupils vanish the necessity for education as a condition for the increase of cultural level of rural family life. The school dropout tendencies, is bringing heavy social deformations on the cultural level of rural families, and make possible advancing of illiteracy level in rural areas, as a regressive step in the cultural level of rural families. Rural community of Gjirokastra District should do great attempts in order to create a social environment in rural areas, where to be evaluated the role of school as the main tool for the development of cultural level of families.

Adrienn NAGY:
Commercial Schools in Hungary in the Age of Dualism,
pages 289-296

The aim of this study is to introduce the operation of secondary commercial schools in Hungary in the age of dualism. The research has sought an answer, in one respect, to the question what significance commercial schools had in the Hungarian school market in the 19th century; in another respect, to the question what role these secondary commercial schools took in Hungarian vocational training; and last but not least, to the question what job opportunities secondary commercial qualifications afforded in the Hungarian labour market at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries.

Didactic Models for Intercultural Communication through Group Ill-Structured Problem Solving,
pages 297-308

In the paper are presented three didactic models for intercultural communication through group ill-structured problem solving. Models are justified by two general approaches: genealogical and taxonomical. Genealogical approach is used in terms of intercultural communication. The taxonomical approach is conceptualized in conjunction with strategies for ill-structured problem solving.

Previous Issues

Volume 1 Number 1 2006
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Volume 2 Number 1-2 2007
Volume 2 Number 3-4 2007
Volume 3 Number 1 2008
Volume 3 Number 2 2008
Volume 3 Number 3-4 2008
Volume 4 Number 1 2009
Volume 4 Number 2 2009
Volume 4 Number 3-4 2009
Volume 5 Number 1 2010
Volume 5 Number 2 2010