Practice and Theory in Systems of Education

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Editorial Board

Volume 7 Number 3 2012
ISSN 1788-2591 (Online)
ISSN 1788-2583 (Printed)

(In)Equality in Education,
pages 241-246

The article is about the problem of inequalities in education. This phenomenon is presented in the context of contemporary circumstances. Changes, which have taken place in the 21st century, allow for equalization of educational opportunities for students through promotion of various actions. On the other hand these changes may contribute to the intensification of inequality prompting, in consequence, to the social exclusion. Despite many advanced solutions, school still remains a place of selection (tests, grades). It is an area of tensions and didactic failures. It especially relates to those, who do not posses definite knowledge and competences. Meanwhile contemporary education, which promotes a whole life education, imposes on a man a skill and readiness to permanent learning and acting set for success. Therefore school, wanting to prepare all the students to this process, cannot remain indifferent to such phenomena as: school selections, social exclusion, marginalization, but above all, school should take actions leading to leveling them. It is also worth paying attention to the functioning of early childhood education. At this stage some inequalities in education, among children and youngsters, should be equalized. It may be too late, at the next rungs on the educational ladder, to equalize students' opportunities.

Special or (All) Inclusive Education,
pages 247-256

This paper deals with the issue of special and inclusive education within the current reform of the compulsory primary school in Bosnia and Herzegovina, with particular reference to Herzegovina-Neretva Canton. The paper is based on the survey research (carried out in the first half of 2010) on attitudes (towards primarily inclusive education) of 165 teachers and 145 parents from Herzegovina-Neretva Canton, respectively, through a five-point Likert scale referring to: teachers and parents' acquaintance with special and inclusive education requirements and their involvement in its designing, planning, organisation; teachers' professional training in the mentioned fields; school readiness for inclusive education; level of partnership with relevant subjects. Since the partnership of all the subjects involved in the education reform is a conditio sine qua non of its success, this paper reflects upon its position in various proclamations and in primary school teachers and parents' reality, i.e. legislative aspects vs. everyday situation of inclusive education in our schools. In both the samples of our research there has been so far the evident negative attitude towards the inclusive education, due to the lack of the most of the above mentioned points, including the reform political background ('top-down' model), as well. One of the conclusions to be drawn is that there is the urgent need for all the relevant subjects to work in sinergy in order to provide decent and quality not only special but also inclusive education, taking into account the benefit of all the children in general. However, the following questions (put here in the form of puns) are still to be answered: is it all about special or inclusive; is it all or only inclusive education.

Local Boundary Interpretations and Minority Education,
pages 257-267

The notion of boundary is widely referred in sociological and anthropological research, among others, in the study of ethnicity, cultural identity and locality. This article shows few of those concepts, which are applicable in understanding of the needs toward and conflicts around educational programs dedicated to children, who belong to national minority families. With this theoretical background the work summarize the results of a research developed in Slovakian minority schools in Pest County, in Hungary. Furthermore it suggests a possible model of analyses of the local discourses about minority education focusing on the concept of cultural agency.

Ferit BACA:
Theory and Practice of Peace Education: The Case of Albania,
pages 268-272

The concept of peace education is directly connected with the rise of western modernity. This concerns that, the concept of both peace and education as well as the combined concept of peace education. Thus, education is the most important tool of engaging in the creation of a culture of peace. It is a key factor when it comes to the enhancement and realization of positive and negative social change and it allows an individual to make informed decisions on various aspects that affect his or her life. In that way one aims towards achieving the greatest good for the majority of people. The concept of education gives people a sense of their own power to achieve their potential. It motivates and enables one to try and solve other problems and is a key mind opener that has a ripple effect. However, in this paper is going to be presented a theoretical and analytical framework of peace education in Albania.

Erika GARAJ, Anita HORKAI, Judit Helga FEITH, & Edina GRADVOHL:
Some Aspects of Cultural Diversity and Learning Styles in International Higher Education,
pages 273-278

Common feature of higher education today is the increasing cultural diversity in student populations. Researchers attribute the changing face of the students to trends in multiculturalism, internationalization and globalization. Understanding how students learn in the multicultural environment is an important part of selecting appropriate teaching methods. Of relevance to this lecture is the increasing presence of international students in higher education of Hungary as well. Our aim is to provide an integrated framework for developing students' cross-cultural competence by drawing on the cultural diversity and learning strategies. This quantitative, questionnaire-based research was conducted among foreign physiotherapy students at Semmelweis University in 2011.

Dávid FARKAS, & Gábor OROSZ:
Why Hungarian High School Students Cheat?,
pages 279-292

The goal of the present questionnaire study was the exploration of the impact of individual, contextual and cultural value-related factors on Hungarian high school students' (N = 236; M = 96, F = 140) self-reported individual cheating behavior. The validity and reliability of the utilized scales were tested. According to the results (1) attitudes towards cheating, (2) guilt after cheating and (3) grade point average (GPA) had direct impact on self-reported cheating behavior. Indirect predictors were observed also. The results are discussed from the perspective of Hungarian cultural and educational context.

Cemil ÖZTÜRK, & E. Özlem YIGIT:
Technology and Society in the Views of Social Studies Student Teachers,
pages 293-300

In this paper, it was aimed to represent these relationships in views of social studies students teachers who were enrolled in Social Studies Department in Marmara University. Based on qualitative research methodology, 15 social studies student teachers were formed the research group. Semi-structured interviews were done for the aim of data collection. Each participant was interviwed individually and, interview transcripts were analysed through qualitative data analyse methods. Besides examples of activities about technology and society which were done by those students were examined. In conclusion, it was found that social studies student teachers thought that there was a great relationship between technology and society. We saw that they comprehended cultural, social, economic, political and environmental effects of technology; societys' role on technological developments and its' usage and historical effect of technology. Besides, they were aware of the superiority of societies which advanced in science and technology and were called as developed countries and they thought that those countries had a hegemony on others because of their advance technology. Common culture that was created by technology was also expressed by social studies student teachers.

Development of Technological Education in Lithuania,
pages 301-310

The article deals with the changes in technological education in Lithuania i. e. a transition from the craft-based technological education to the project-based education of technologies when the students' skills related with projects, information search, collection and analysis, knowledge of materials, etc. are developed, and a concept of technologies is expanded. Applying a method of literature analysis, the features of technological education as well as expression of didactic components of technological education in the activities of the educational process participants at different historical time periods are analysed. As the political environment of education in Lithuania was changing, teaching of household works (technical works) was transforming into technological education. The goal was to develop a coherent conception of technological education, from domestic consumption to the knowledge of not complicated technologies. An opportunity to reveal and develop the multidimensionality of technologies as an educational subject occurred. The main components of technological education are technological changes, consumer education, quality of life, computer literacy, design, and vocational guidance. A close relationship among these components demonstrates multidisciplinarity of technological education. Technological education, as a part of holistic education, is holistically qualitative as much as interrelations among technological education components are perceived. Technological education is integral, open for cooperation, individualization and differentiation of the curriculum by applying a project method of education. As the students select one of the six modules in the area of technologies in the secondary education school, a technological competence is developed i. e. moral values and technological skills are cherished. In order to verify and evaluate the student's achievements aimed at the competence in the area of technologies, in 2009 the examination of technologies was introduced in Lithuania. The examination is carried out by applying a project-based work method, and the process consists of three parts: preparation of description of the final examination work, creation of the product of the final examination work and presentation of the final examination work.

Andrita KRUMINA:
Media Upbringing in a Family: A Task for Modern Parents,
pages 311-318

Children in society of information grows up in environment full of information and media. As the development of media competence must be started in early childhood, responsibility about such relevant questions as media education and upbringing, must undertake a family. There are three main parental mediation strategies or methods of media upbringing what are used in families: active mediation, restrictive mediation and co-using. This article provides an insight about the concept of parental mediation and results of the pilot research where one of the objectives was to determine tendencies that dominate in the families of Latvia do to parental mediation.

Milana GRK, & Radovan COKORILO:
Pedagogical Competence and Pedagogical Education of Parents,
pages 319-332

In this paper we shall try to show the importance of raising the level of competence of parents (through training of parents for self-assessment of their own competence as the best guarantee of future results) for the prevention of many social problems, to develop all the potential and the disposition of every child and exercise its rights and build quality society raising it systematically and continuously to a higher level of civilization. Broader frames of reference of this study were determined of humanistic appreciation of the man and his development and humanistic theories of education, and parenting is seen in the context of an integrative model of parenting in which a prominent place occupied by pedagogical competence of parents. In order to determine the relation between self-assessment of pedagogical competence of parents and the importance that they attach to education, was conducted research on a sample of 72 parents of children aged 4.5 and 6 years. Controlled variables were gender, age and educational level of parents and age and gender of children, birth order and number of children in the family. By factor analysis of Scale of parent's perceptions of competence for the parental role was extracted one factor, called factor of pedagogical incompetence of parents. The extracted factor is at one pole defined by dimensions which are negatively correlated with the separate factors and that are related to pedagogical competence of parents, and by the other dimensions which are positively correlated and that are related to pedagogical incompetence. By the factor analysis of Scale of attitude of parents towards pedagogical education was extracted one factor that has been named as Factor of attitude of parents towards pedagogical education. Confirmed the research hypothesis by using the Pearson correlation coefficient that was established correlation between self-assessment of pedagogical competence of parents and their attitude towards pedagogical education, which means that parents who perceive themselves as pedagogical incompetent have a more positive attitude towards pedagogical education.

Pinar GIRMEN, & Emel BAYRAK:
Validity and Reliability Study of the Listening Comprehension Scale,
pages 333-344

Language is both the source and reflection of human thinking. Listening, which is the first experience with the mother tongue in a child's life, acts as a means for learning other language skills as well as being the most used language skill in an individual's social and academic life. An effective learning experience requires that students move from where they already are. This change can only be determined by standardized scales structured in harmony with the nature of the variable to be measured. Those scales for determining listening level can involve students in the active nature of listening by means testing situations they present in practical process. The primary aim of this study is to present the validity and reliability test results of the listening scale developed in order to determine the primary school 5th graders' listening comprehension skill level. The scale's validity and reliability analyses were applied in Eskişehir city centre with a total of 700 primary school 5th graders chosen through stratified sampling. The scope of the listening scale comprised the listening comprehension acquisitions covered in the Primary Education Turkish course curriculum. Aimed at measuring mental skills such as understanding, predicting, summarizing, classifying, ordering, concluding, distinguishing and comparing what is listened to, the scale was designed as fifteen separate parts. Each part consisted of instructions, passages and questions. The draft version of the scale was applied twice by the researcher and once by two expert academics being revised each time and semi-structured interviews were conducted with the students. For times when the students might be distracted, enjoyable listening activities called "leisure time" were designed in order to eliminate the validity problems to be caused by the implementation process. Relevant field experts were consulted regarding the scope and face validity of the scale. The item score matrix, item discrimination power and item difficulty index of the scale items were calculated as well as other statistics such as the scale's arithmetic mean, standard deviation, validity and reliability. The item total score correlation, explaining the scale's internal validity and item discrimination index, was calculated with the Pearson Product-moment Correlation Coefficient and Item Discrimination Power Based on Group Differences. The Cronbach-Alpha Coefficient was used in determining the reliability of the scale. The findings from the analyses revealed that the scale is a valid and reliable instrument.

Zsuzsa KOVÁCS:
Discourse Analysis Application and the Supportive Context of Self-Regulated Learning,
pages 345-352

This paper is focusing primarily on theoretical and methodological aspects of adaptation the instructional discourse analysis in educational researches, summarizing experiences based on the literature of discourse analysis and outlining the role of the method disclosing the main features of classroom context that supports self-regulated learning. Supporting self-regulated learning can only happen and can be interpreted when there are intensive interactions among individuals and the social-context elements. The approach and methodology provided by the qualitative method of discourse analysis could be an appropriate tool for stressing out the importance of context in understanding self-regulated learning.

The Effects of Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Training on the Reading Performance of Turkish Students,
pages 353-358

A quick review of foreign language education in Turkey indicates that many of today's students develop a bottom-up view of reading, interacting passively with texts, such as rereading, and memorizing information word for word. In fact, developing effective reading skills has become an evitable goal in the second language learning or foreign language curriculum. As it is argued in many contemporary studies, the main reason people around the world study English as a second or foreign language is to read. Therefore, the purpose of teaching reading to students is to improve the attitudes, abilities, and skills needed for obtaining information, developing interest, using appropriate strategies, and understanding the written material by reading through comprehension. Among various reading models, the interactive model of reading in EFL is the most contemporary one which comprises the above mentioned issues. Various learning strategies, such as advance organizers, metacognitive strategies and cognitive strategies, have been developed and widely preferred in the EFL setting to make the students self confident, active, and efficient readers. As is indicated, Turkish EFL readers interact passively with texts. Considering this point of view, the purpose of this research study is to examine the influence of metacognitive and cognitive strategies for the purpose of learning to read in English as a Foreign Language. Pursuing these views in this study using metacognitive and cognitive strategies, Semantic Mapping, Schema Mapping, and SQ4R are employed to enhance the reading achievement of the students' English Language and Literature department. The method which is used in this study for measuring outcome results, pretest-posttest control group experimental research design is chosen. Since the results demonstrate the strong positive effects of Semantic Mapping, Schema Mapping, and SQ4R this leads the researcher to propose them as very helpful instructional techniques to be employed in order to enhance EFL students' reading comprehension.

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Volume 1 Number 1 2006
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Volume 5 Number 1 2010
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Volume 7 Number 1 2012
Volume 7 Number 2 2012