Practice and Theory in Systems of Education

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Editorial Board

Volume 8 Number 1 2013
ISSN 1788-2591 (Online)
ISSN 1788-2583 (Printed)

Intercultural Dimensions of National Identity Narratives in Transylvanian Literature after the Trianon Trauma,
pages 1-12

The Trianon trauma intensified and deepened Romanian-Hungarian intercultural communication that had been disturbed for historical reasons in the first place. Woundedness of national identities involves the possibility of manipulation on both sides manipulation, which is dangerous in and by itself. The special situation of nationalities pushed into minority or diaspora existence demands and yields different strategies of identity-crisis management, diverging identity narratives in life and literature. What directly follows from such identtiy-crisis management is that intercultural communication undergoes a transformation and, abandoing its former patterns, it assumes forms different from the ones before: split cultural identity, conforming renunciation of identity, changed level and intensity of the degree of cultural identification, alienated collective identity (collective identity being, perhaps at varience, with culture) as well as the individual's alienation from collective identity. I also talk about colonization of identity, and the phenomena it entails, cultural mimicry being one example. These issues posed by a world of such crises of identification will be examined, using relevant and representative literary examples, taking into account also the narrative techniques of presenting identity in literature. In discussing literary examples of crisis-laden intercultural communication cultural theory, theories of identity, postcolonial theory, and narrative theory will be applied.

Ildikó SZABÓ:
Learning in Two Languages (CLIL) in Primary Education in Europe,
pages 13-18

Throughout Europe there is a growing awareness that language learning is much more effective when linked to meaningful content. Through exploiting the synergies of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), children gain a second or third language (L2 or L3) and subject knowledge simultaneously with ease. Through CLIL not only the target language improves susbstantially: it also has a very positive influence on attitudes and motivation and on the cognitive development of children, as well as, a positive influence on subject matter knowledge and on the development of the pupils' first language. For the benefit of every child and to bring the vision of three or more languages (1+<2) within compulsory education to life, it is time to rethink primary teacher education. A recent publication brings together various perspectives from different corners of Europe and from different levels such as classroom practice, teacher education, academic research and European language policy. The main trends in this area throughout Europe is introduced in this study by one of the authors of the referred book.

Miklósné KECSKÉS:
The Role of Folk Games in Education,
pages 19-24

The folk game in itself has an invaluable role to help the contact creation between cultures and shaping normal human connections. While playing, children become accustomed to situations. They have to adapt themselves to each other at the very beginning. Teachers may turn this to their advantage when children make each other follow the rules, and it is not the teacher that needs to do so. We may integrate several branches of Hungarian folk culture into the teaching process. The vast amount of knowledge handed down from generation to generation can be exploited from the very beginning of childhood. Folk poetry, folk games and folk craft may be used in classes with tales, music and visual education. The game sequences will contribute to the development of motion. A vital question is then, to what extent can they be adopted today, and how can they contribute to the development of today's children? In my study I present the possibilities of using folk games considering the different scenes of human life.

László Pál GALUSKA:
Contest of the Wine and the Water. Bacchus and Neptune in Some Denominational School Plays,
pages 25-34

What could we have done if we were Catholic monk teachers in the 18th century and we did not want our students to wildly roister in Carnival? We would have stood to the lead in celebration, organized a theatrical play, steered a new direction to the turbulence. These were the best prescriptions of the denominational tutors in those times. Therefore the carnival performances were better and better in all faith-based schools. In this presentation we analyze the appearances of Bacchus in the denominational school plays. The Pauline monk Dániel Borss interconnects two traditions: the European which was named "literary expression" of the folk laughter-culture by Mikhail Bakhtin and the Hungarian folk tradition of the Carnival. In the earliest texts there was a debate and duel between Bacchus and Neptune - Carnival and Lent - exorbitance and temperance. Not only the important action items but the attributes of main characters are analogues to each other. The play named Bakhvs expresses the requisites of the 18th century, adapts to the claim of the public and leads towards fantastic-grotesque and folkloristic manifestations of the 19th century. While in the earlier comedies there were only dialogues, in this play the actions are important. This drama is worthy ancestor of the folk-play.

Matthijs H. M. HAMMER - Niek THUIJS:
What to Learn from Entrepreneurial Summer Schools? A Logical Typology,
pages 35-40

In the last decades, it seems to be a hype for every entrepreneurial university to organize a kind of a summer school for entrepreneurship. In the adverts of these events there are many promises, but what is it they actually do? The name 'summer (or winter) school' sounds universal. Contradictory, the programmes seem to be unique for each university. It is obvious that a short entrepreneurial support programme, like a summer school, is a popular instrument to contribute to the economic development of a region. Not every region has its own summer school yet. Governmental ambitions throughout Europe make that soon every region will have an entrepreneurship-stimulating instrument like a summer school. To learn from the established summer schools, a qualitative study of 38 of them was carried out in the United States and Europe. Comparison of the gathered data shows that there is a broad scope of goals and aims, as well as the size, cost, duration and financing. Noticeable differences found between Europe and the United States, as well as between the West, East and South of Europe. The findings of the study have resulted in a logical typology of entrepreneurial summer schools.

Zoltán Domokos CSOMORTÁNI:
Adverse Care. The Theories of Psychological Overprotection Based on the Psychoanalytic Idea from Momism to Interactional Synchrony,
pages 41-58

Reviewing the scientific literature of the past fifty years we can recognize that there are more and more articles and studies dealing with the subject of psychological overprotection. Besides the positive impacts of the extended and interdisciplinary interest (clinical psychology, paediatrics, rehabilitation medicine, sociology, etc.) it becomes clear that the parallel definitions of the term and the deficient communication between the different scientific areas lead to definitional problems what set back the future investigations and impugn the validity of the solutions. This lecture is a part of a longer project in which I'll try to find a more efficient definition and operationalization for the term of parental/educator/helper overprotection. This study shows the evolution of the psychological overprotection term from the use and research of momism concept. In the next step will be shown the definitions of overprotection used by psychoanalytic studies (e.g. parent complex, extended incest, alternative explanation of Oedipus complex). In addition to definitions psychoanalytic theorists gave a detailed description about child, parental and cultural background of overprotection, the long term impacts of the phenomena, the possibilities of the therapy, and the extension of the term to the whole educational and mental hygienic areas. In the last part of the lecture will be shown the relation of the attachment term to the overprotection, and proven that the detachment processes are integral parts of attachment ones. The last conclusion of this study is that for investigate the phenomena of overprotection we have to take notice of attachment-detachment process dynamics, the so-called interpersonal synchrony of the parent/child, helper/helpee dyad.

Mitra MOODI - Gholam-Reza SHARIFIRAD - Mohsen REZAEIAN - Firoozeh MOSTAFAVI:
The Effect of an Educational Intervention Based on Health Belief Model on Mammography Screening Stage of Change in Women 40 Years of Age and Older, Isfahan, Iran,
pages 59-68

Educational programs play an important role in promoting breast cancer screening behaviors. Also, Stages of Change and Health Belief Models are the most common models have been applied in Mammography screening behaviors. So, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of BC screening education using HBM on stage of change of mammography screening behavior in 40 years women and older. In this Population-based controlled Trial, 290 women 40 years and older were divided into experimental and control groups randomly. Mammography screening behavior determined using the Rakoweski stage of change measure and HBM components were determined by Farsi version of Champion's Health Belief Model scale (CHBMS). Questionnaires were completed before and three months after intervention. Four educational sessions were conducted each session lasting 90 by lecturing, group discussion and showing slide & educational film based on HBM constructs. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version 18) and statistical test at the significant level of ? = 0.05. In the experimental group, stage of change after intervention had a significant positive progress (p<0.001). Mean scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy and health motivation in the experimental group had significant difference in comparison with the control group (p?0.001). The results of this study have confirmed the efficiency of educational intervention based on HBM in improving mammography screening stage of change. Hence, implementing appropriate educational programs with focus on benefits of Mammography in early detection of BC and creating positive motivation for health among women, can increase their adherence and transition into action and maintenance stages.

Dropout-Rate Reducing Strategies in Denmark and in Hungary,
pages 69-78

The focus of my research is to reveal the efficiency of Hungarian and Danish dropout-rate reducing strategies, good practices in order to help the population concerned reintegrate into the education system and/or the world of work and above all into society. In addition, my aim is to make a clear comparison between the dropout rate reducing strategies applied in Hungary and in Denmark. I intend to concentrate on student retention and achievement which, I assume, are strongly related to the following three factors: the efficient mentoring system, peer assistance and encouraging learning environment.

Valentin Cosmin BLANDUL:
Some Modalities Regarding Ways of Spending Free-Time - As a Predictor of Scholar Dropout Risk,
pages 79-86

The importance of spending free-time wisely is highlighted because it represents a strong resource in life's quality. The ways in which people decide to spend their free-time (according to their needs, possibilities and preferences) are influenced by the concrete situation of the country itself and by the specific orientation of contemporary society. Different categories of population can build their own life styles, including the modalities of spending free-time according to their level of instruction, socio-economic status, their possibilities and interests. Unfortunately, for some pupils, the modalities in which they decide to spend their free-time represent a strong predictor of the risk of scholar dropout. This is the main reason I intend to analyze some of these factors which can conduct to the risk of early school leaving. The sample is composed of 250 pupils, who study in the secondary level, from 5 schools from Bihor county, Romania. The instrument is represented by a questionnaire composed of 37 items and the period of research is the present academic year (2011 / 2012). The results show that the most relevant modalities for Romanian pupils to spend their free-time are represented by socialization (meeting with others, sports, talking on messenger and so on), administrative activities which involve their families (housework, helping parents to complete their financial resources, taking care of their little brothers / sisters), and intellectual activities (reading books or magazines). In the present papers these factors are analyzed because the missing of intellectual preoccupation represents a potential danger for pupils' scholar progress.

Angela JIREGHIE - Viorica BANCIU - Rodica Teodora BIRIS:
Ethnographic and Medical Considerations on the 'Calus' (Morris Dance),
pages 87-90

A very ancient custom formerly spread on the whole Romanian folkloric area, the 'Calus' is practiced today in the Danube plane of Oltenia and Muntenia and sporadically in the west and south-west of Transylvania. The 'Calus' is a part of the Whitsuntide customs. It is practiced by an esoteric group of 7-9 men, group is constituted in the 'Saturday of the Whitsuntide', at half time between Easter and Whitsuntide and which takes a vow. Beginning from this date until Whitsuntide they practice the dances belonging to this custom and become accustomed with their dancing. From Whitsuntide till the Thursday 8 days after it, the group goes from one house to another in its own village or in the neighboring ones and dances the 'Calus' dances. The dances which are practiced in our time have some spurs of initiation acts of phallic dances for fecundity and fertility. But their meaning is now blotted in the conscience of the 'Calusari' and in that of collectivity where the 'Calus' is danced. Not very long ago, were cured by this dance those who were 'taken from Calus', from the 'iele' (malevolent spirits), as they violated the interdiction of not working on some days between the 'Saturday of the Whitsuntide' and the Whitsuntide. The diagnosis of those 'taken from the Calus' is made by the aid of music. This study intends to introduce some data about this old dance called the 'Calus'. Practiced today sporadically in the south of Oltenia and also in connection with the curing through the 'Calus'. The direct observation made on the spot tries to detach the background of ancient beliefs of this practice, its magical valences and in parallel with these elements of psychological pressure and convention of this custom. It contains interesting clear observations of the 'calusari' themselves, but also of the collectivity concerning the meaning of the dance, that of the curing act and of other aspects formerly wrapped in mystery.

Zoltán KOVÁCS:
Children's Multicultural Socialization through Science and Technology,
pages 91-100

In 2006 we have visited a settlement with three nationalities, with the intention of socializing the pupils belonging to the three ethnic groups, through a technical workshop. This workshop was held by Trevor Davies, science and technology teacher from the University of Reading, UK. At the school in Tărlungeni, a village near Brasov, learn pupil belonging to three ethnic groups. Our goal was to put pupils, belonging to different nationalities, into the situation of getting to know each other under pleasant working circumstances and as such to prevent prejudices and stereotypes. Since then the school from Tarlungeni received several equipments and financial support that allowed starting the construction of a multifunctional building for afternoon activities. In the same building there will be a laundry and a bathroom. This paper presents the workshop that took place on the 19th of May 2007 and the research that followed it. The workshop was attained by the formative assessment method.

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