Practice and Theory in Systems of Education

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Editorial Board

Volume 8 Number 3 2013
ISSN 1788-2591 (Online)
ISSN 1788-2583 (Printed)

Mariann MÓRÉ, Anita KOZÁK:
Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning in Higher Education,
pages 201-210

In the previous school-year 120 thousand correspondence, part-time and night-school students registered on higher education trainings in Hungary. Most of these students have a job and they decided to continue their education. Some of these students have a strong practical knowledge from their field, but they do not have a qualification of that. Generally they aimed to get a higher salary at their workplace or they have to get a certification because it was their employer's request. In some cases during the consultations these students realize that their practical knowledge is more up-to-date than their teachers'. Moreover sometimes they have previous knowledge from workplace trainings or self-trainings. The problem is that the accreditation of this knowledge in higher education trainings in Hungary does not use common. In this study we aimed to call the attention to the opportunity for accreditation of prior experiential learning in higher education trainings. This is an already existing process for correspondence students at the University of Debrecen in the field of human recourse counselling. With this validation method these students' practical knowledge from the field of Human Resource Management can be recognized by a formal training system, so they pay less charge for the training.

System Integration Issues for School Social Work,
pages 211-216

The topic of my research fell on a less stressed area of the social work, into the school social work. The child affecting the schools and a youth protection system aroused my interest in more flavors already, and the question till when the present system is operational. Verifiable one, which it is in the system of school social work that that professionalism is missing from the child's and a youth protection system's functions, got it. The question, which is the school one, what it is occurs to many people with a full right social work stable one, reliable one, makes it maintainable, the child working currently and as opposed to a youth protection system. The school social work is on only very little place on a sign in the educational institutions despite the needs, problems. I look for the answer for it in more flavors in the course of my research, how the school social work may be operational as what the present one social- between economic frameworks. The factors that are the essential accessories of a social service which can be maintained on long distance structured well are that. What regulates the function of the trade? First of all essential to examine what kind of special knowledge the school social worker needs, and this is insured between the frameworks of the present social training. What kind of proposals are there in the interest of the strengthening of the vocational identity? Somebody else helping helps that of separating from trades, and insures easier cooperation if the trade has a particular, area which can be delimited well. Where does the border last long? Furthermore anyway important to mention the legitimacy of the system, the measure environment in which the trade is rooted, and the future one gives a uniform guarantee from sustainability. Important to examine, that before the birth of a new trade the frameworks of the regulation, the financing, the definition of the vocational background is based on a situation analysis on a suitable need survey, since this influences the sustainability on big one. I look for the answer for the issues outlined above in the course of my scientific examination continued on an area. Trust it, that a system integrated so well will be born commenting on the needs, for which the specialists lay a big emphasis on the examination of the honed outlined issues in the course of his development, since his essential prerequisite for a maintainable service.

Developing Experiences of Curriculum for Healthcare Professionals and School-System Vocational Students,
pages 217-224

The article offers an inside view in the process of curriculum development in the field of healthcare: its requirements, method and the co-ordination of the work of those 8 organizations and 50 people who participated in it. The method can be an example to show how a multipurpose (thus per unit cost relatively cheap) curriculum can be elaborated where the development could only be based on a wide-range co-operation of the participants: the general instructions were given by the employer and the school, the content was defined by the specialist, the training and the method of vocational examination were organized by specialist teachers and andragogists, the accreditation and qualification were managed by adult training specialists, and the visual work developments and digitalization were carried out by the media developer and the IT-specialist.

János Tibor KARLOVITZ:
Adult Poverty and Education Methods,
pages 225-230

People who read dailies regularly often face the notion of child poverty. They also learn that there are disadvantaged children at school and governments take different measures to help them. The disadvantages of adults are presented in entirely different contexts. Either we can think of material deprivation in the context of unemployment or our feelings are intensified concerning changes in benefit payment, or sometimes the problems of the homeless are highlighted in one or two news items. These days there are different schemes to help non-paying mortgage loan owners which can refer to the fact that the government is making efforts to deal with the problems and financial troubles of people from different layers of society. At the same time, we know very little about the multitudinous forms of existing, actual adult poverty. Most adults find this problem very threatening because the vast majority have the feeling that their financial security can collapse at any time and they can easily get into a severe, helpless financial situation. I study adult poverty because I firmly believe that without treating this problem it is impossible to "tackle" child poverty, which always shows up in the different scenes of institutionalised education.

In Vitro Fertilization and Cerebral Palsy: The Pető Institute Experience,
pages 231-238

Background: In vitro fertilization (IVF) may increase the risk of future cerebral palsy (CP). Apart from prematurity, the most common risk factors include protracted or precipitate labor, placental abnormalities, infections, lasting mechanical ventilation and multiple pregnancies. Methods: We examined children born from IVS, their handicap, the type of cerebral palsy and compared with children from control population of same age, from the same district. We analyzed both groups according to the factors which co-vary with CP such as multiple births, preterm births, neonatal complications and parents age. Results: The incidence of IVS amongst children with CP was doubled compared with the control kindergarten. All children were born from twin pregnancies. More than 2 embryos were transferred in 64% of cases. In our group, CP was most likely a consequence of an increased risk of neonatal morbidity associated with multiple pregnancies. Conclusion: Our case-series favors a more widespread use of single embryo transfer.

Adult Personal Development in Latvian Folk High Schools: An Observational Analysis,
pages 239-247

Folk high school movement has been known in Latvia since 1917, when the first Folk high school was established in Valmiera. These institutions have never been real boarding schools; they provided lectures for any kind of interest to listeners mainly from rural areas approximately once a week. In this article, attention is drawn to an understanding of the study process that facilitates personal development of adult learners at the folk high school. A participant observation was carried out at one of the biggest folk high schools in Latvia in October 2011 and March-April 2012. The study took 9 days, 2-3 hours were spent in direct observation of various lessons (Latvian and English languages and floristic) each day. A conclusion drawn from the results of the study is that in situations where personal development takes place the study process is characterized by three main aspects: human as a value, human values, and higher human values at the centre of the study.

The Importance of School Climate in Process of Inclusion,
pages 248-254

The definitions of school climate vary, most connect it to the quality and character of school life, reflecting the norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching, learning, leadership practices, and organizational structures. Positive school climate foster development of students and learning necessary for a productive, contributing, and satisfying life in a society. When a school climate is healthy, people feeling socially, emotionally, and physically safe. They are engaged and respected; students, families, and educators work together to develop and contribute to a shared school vision. School climate imapact willingness of students to get involved, how they feel, their contribution, their sense of self and other people. The type of school climate do not determine only student and teachers alone, but also school stuff, parents and school partners. If the process of inclusion should be effective, school climate may reflect such characteristics as mutual respect, equity, dignity, justice, honesty and safety. This paper focuses on the presentation of the results of research of school climate using CFK School Climate Profile (Fox), on sample of 37 secondary schools. We discuss the possibilities to evaluating and improving school climate through special interventions that was inspired by implementations of the principles of Individual Psychology in process of school inclusion. One of such programs is programming COPE - Creating Optimal Personal Experiences, that we introduce in the paper. We hope that process of school inclusion can be successful only by creating positive school climate in our school. This paper could be good inspiration for pedagogue in creating positive climate.

Quality Indicators in Education,
pages 255-267

The article from Juscáková Z. "Quality Indicators in Education" concerns the identification of the construct of educational quality and characterization of selected quality indicators in the context of school self-evaluation. Nationwide testing at ISCED 2 and ISCED 3 level has 10 years long tradition in Slovak Republic. Overestimation of statistical outputs from testing at the end of a primary and secondary education by mass media and politicians has linked the concept of educational quality predominantly to cognitive and performance testing. A tendency to limit school evaluation solely on the outputs from testing knowledge, and performance skills, such as literacy and numeracy has grown over the time. The present state should be adjusted, therefore we want to accentuate the additional criteria of educational quality, for example student's motivation to learn, ethos and school environment, etc. In the project of assessment of educational quality, for the first time not only cognitive measurements tools are used, but non-cognitive too. In collaboration with 36 grammar and vocational schools we intend to find a way of assessing the complex nature of school environment by quantitative data. Solid database for the standardization of various test and questionnaires has been obtained, by testing approximately 2600 students. Those tools are aimed to capture wide variety of features from personal, social to cognitive characteristics. The implementation of our results is based on a feedback we provide for schools. Based on that school can make adjustments which are necessary to sustain or improve their educational quality. Major goal of the collaboration with schools at the present time is to elaborate the research in a close relation to school reality, its applicability in schools in real life and popularization of intended changes in legislation that concerns the evaluation of education in schools. The final goal of our research is to provide the methodology for assessment of educational quality, with intention to help the schools with their self-evaluation.

Parvaneh TAYMOORI:
Running Head: Curriculum Modifying. A Delphi Study to Curriculum Modifying through the Application of the Course Objective and Competencies,
pages 268-280

Background: In order to incorporate new knowledge, skills and emerging concepts from dynamic fields of public health into ongoing courses reform of curriculums sounds necessary. Accordingly, this study was performed to modify health education curriculum of public health undergraduate level. Methods: Using Delphi technique, twenty-three health education lecturers were asked during three rounds to suggest and rate topics they deemed most important to graduate public health experts and curricula related to the areas of knowledge and skills in health education course. Results: The experts suggested that health enhancing behaviors and reduce health risks, advocate health, behavior change theories and developing a framework are key objects in the curriculum. Much more new topical outlines were related to previous course. Skills rated as important included need assessment and health communication. The most evaluators suggested that adding a practicum unit to two theory units will be helpful. Conclusion: The results from our survey suggested that changes in the course definition including new course objectives, topical outlines, and required skills were deemed important by the lecturers and were appropriately integrated into the health education course curriculum. The new curriculum should be evaluated constantly to seek and provide experiences that will best prepare students to meet challenges as a health educator.

Health Care Education and the Local Community,
pages 281-286

It's an individual duty to be aware and aimed for a proper health care. We have to keep a health body and in the same time the community must work up for a healthy environment. The research in this filed should target systemic evaluations of the interventions for health care promotions. Is rising the necessity for extensive psychological studies at individual level and also community level. Actions for a healthier environment and health care education activities must be addressed to people as components of the local community. In this paper work are presented our successful practices of health care promotion as well as the project entitled "Rescuers Developing Skills Trainings" This project was an Hungarian-Romanian partnerships financed by E.U. funds.

The Core Competence for "Learning" Organisations,
pages 287-295

The question how to efficiently and effectively prepare the young for work actually points out to the question of the professional competences that the young should acquire for working in the knowledge-based society. In this research, cognitive flexibility is represented by the variable of acceptance of plurality of ideas (API) as a core competence for learning organisations. Research goal was to determine whether it was possible to practice flexible cognitive strategies in high education. Convenience sample was used comprised the fourth year students from the Psychology department. The method used was test-retest design. In the frame of the course of Psychology of Interpersonal Relations it was applied the principle of multiperspectivism. Various knowledge sources are re-examined, as well as their meanings within various discourses. Encouragement of personal points of view of the learner by demands for pursue for arguments to different even opposite attitudes concerning controversial issue was used. Practice effects were monitored in the course of three school years 2006/7(N=30); 2007/8(N=19); 2008/9(N=55). The instruments used for assessing practice effects were constructed by the author. T-test used for determining practice effects was significant. The obtained results are especially significant both for education and for practice of "learning" organisations.

"Oh Say, Whom Would You Vote For?" Some Remarks on Hungarian Electoral System,
pages 296-300

Election fraud and human errors have been existing ever since elections exist. We could see many different examples even at the last few elections in Hungary in spite of the fact that our voting system makes it impossible. Theoretically at least. Analysing the mass data of the elections we may find significant differences which ought to be explained somehow. If there is a natural explanation, let it be any kind, of the difference, there are no problems. The 13th district of Budapest is a good example for this case in the parliamentary election in 2010. If there are no such explanations, random errors or election fraud may be supposed. In this paper I show some examples to find such problematic places worth verifying.

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Volume 8 Number 1 2013
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