Practice and Theory in Systems of Education

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Editorial Board

Volume 9 Number 2 2014
ISSN 1788-2591 (Online)
ISSN 1788-2583 (Printed)

The Studies on Relaxation in Polish Pedagogics,
pages 101-110

Relaxation may play in important role in the practice of pedagogy. First of all, it is used in pedagogical therapy in the form of various methods and is usually applied in order to aid the therapy of children and teenagers with specific developmental or behavioural disorders, e.g. in speech therapy. It is also used in health promotion, guidance, sociotherapy, self-education work, in kindergarten and early school classes as well as during physical education lessons.

Personality Traits of Students of Budapest Business School Before and After the Economic Crisis,
pages 111-121

The economic and social transformations of the recent years may have altered the attitudes of the young adults. We started out from the assumption that instability and downward social mobility triggered by the economic depression since 2008 have affected the personality organisation, the subjective satisfaction and well-being of this age group. Two surveys were carried out before and after the onset of the depression, in 2005 and 2012, among the students of Budapest Business School (BBS) to confirm our hypothesis (2005: N=133; 2012: N=83). The five factor-scale of NEOPI-R (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) was used to map the personality structure of students. The evaluation of the NEOPI-R revealed on both occasions that our students can be characterized with higher scores of Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness than the average of the population. This can be explained by their young age or by the profile of BBS, as its programs attract students with a constellation of these personality traits. Compared to the findings of 2005, the survey of 2012 yielded that students are less conformist, but more open to new information: they achieved significantly lower scores on "openness to values", but higher scores on the "openness to ideas" facet scale. It means that in 2012 the personality organisation and the attitudes of BBS students were more liable to be affected by potentially accessible high-quality new information than traditions. The results also suggest that youngsters are immune to the anxieties of the adult world, as the "Neuroticism" values were relatively low in both surveys. Moreover, in 2012 the "positive emotions" subscale of "Extraversion" got significantly higher scores than in 2005. It indicates that the level of subjective well-being of the students increased in the years of the crisis. It is also interesting to notice that, although the level of "Conscientiousness" decreased in the 2012 sample, "Conscientiousness" and "Neuroticism" had a significant negative correlation in both years. The more our students work and achieve, the healthier they are psychologically. These surveys led us to the conclusion that, despite the obvious existential difficulties, the psychic state and the putative coping potentials of our students are more positive than we expected.

Pronouncement of Gipsy Pupils about Themselves - Conclusion of a Reseached Carried out in Borsod County,
pages 122-128

I summarize consequences of a researched carried out in a little settlement of Borsod county, called Rakaca with school-leavers of the local primary school, in which we could say about mostly such pupils, families in which parents are low-educated, they don't have any chance of work, living is expected from benefits, where parents send their children to school because of fearing of the fine, who can only dream of a better life, possibility of better living. My searching methods were: observation in classroom, interview, questionare.

Constructions of Childhood and the Concepts of Children as Beings and Becomings,
pages 129-135

A central part of recent debates in the sociology of childhood has been the division between children as becomings and children as beings. Both positions have been well argued and have had significant impact on everyday teachers' practice, but still they present diametrically opposite attitudes towards the concept of a child and his/her development. In former view, children are seen as subjects largely without subjectivity and individuality, as a 'set of potentials' or a 'project in making' which are to develop into adults (beings) or, in other words, that children are in the state of 'not yet being'. The new perspectives on the concept of children regard children as beings. In this view children are seen as active human beings, who take part in everyday life which is more than just preparation for the future. A child is seen as a social actor and should be understood in its own right and not by assumed shortfall of competence, reason or significance. There is a growing need for a model that can bring these different positions together and make them integrated, interdependent and necessary components of the same field instead of being competitive, in order to better understand the concept of a child and to increase his/her agency in the contemporary world. This paper will examine different constructions of childhood as well as concepts of children as beings and children as becomings and argue for the importance of connecting these two concepts, so that they should not be considered as opposed but rather integrated and complementary. Although they are well-supported, neither being nor becoming discourse on their own provide adequate viewpoint for understanding of children and childhood in the society they live in. Both aspects are interrelated in children's lives. Furthermore, both views on children and childhood have shortcomings which could be overcome by complementing one with the other.

Projects on Environmental Education as Means and Methods to Develop Abilities Used in the Training of Lower Primary Teachers,
pages 136-142

There are courses in our institute in which comprehensive projects on environmental education are prepared and piloted by students. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the pedagogy of project-work done by those lower primary school student-teachers who opt for studying natural sciences. In the related methodology course it is in the fifth and sixth semesters that students elaborate and pilot four projects on environmental education. These projects are primarily done outdoors, in nature. At the beginning of the methodology course semi-structured interviews are used to assess the pre-knowledge of students about projects in general and about their past experience with project work in particular. Participating students' organisational skills for outdoor education were also evaluated. After the elaboration and implementation of the student projects semi-structured interviews are used again to assess the degree of improvement of participating students.

Experience of Flow During Singing,
pages 143-151

In my investigation with the help of a questionnaire, I collected information about flow experiences in singing. What is flow during singing? The unhindered inhalation the unbound resonance, and stream of the voice. Singing music with empathize. Identity the figure, shaped on the stage. Intuition flush lived through during performance. Inspire collaboration among colleagues. The first two experiences have technical origin, the other have performer origin. Both groups of experiences are necessary for beneficial influence the audience. The experience of flow makes the singer free, happy, and the audience will feel it immediately. In my investigation 23 participants took place. 11 females, and 12 males. All of them have performer experiences. They belong to different age groups and represent every voice category in the population usual proportion. 9 sopranos, 2 mezzos, 3 tenors, 7 baritones and 2 basses filled the questionnaire up. There reports about their experiences give for the professional singer education, useful aid. I found differences: in the direction of the air during inhalation, the position of the larynx, where to feel the voice resonance, the conception of the so called "support", in threshold circumstances for identified performances, in music taste, in expectations from accompanist, conductor, partners, stage manager. The result saws that the personal differences are great, wide, and for result-full education, collaboration with singers must be deeply take into account.

Zsuzsa BUZAS:
Testing Music-Reading Ability on the Base of Kodály Conception,
pages 152-160

In my pilot study I am dealing with the music- reading ability of singer students who are studying at Kodály School, in Kecskemét. I would like to explore the characteristics of the expert music-reading strategy users and the different possibilities for teaching of music-reading. I would like also examine whether sight-reading is an acquired skill and analyze the individual differences in sight-reading performance. In different domains of expertise (including music), there is a close relationship between the level of performance individuals have attained and the amount of practice time they have accumulated during training in the domain. From the early studies on the importance of eye-voice span we know that the ability to read ahead while singing unrehearsed music is a condition for successful sight-reading. Eyetracking analysis has become nowadays a popular tool in methodological researches. Eye movement in music reading - the scanning of a musical score by a musician's eyes - is a very complex phenomenon that involves a number of unresolved issues in music psychology and requires intricate experimental conditions to produce meaningful data. I conducted my research at Teacher Training College in Kecskemét, where eye movements data during singing was measured by an eye tracking system. The music-reading materials were all Zoltán Kodály's compositions, whose conception forms the basis of the Hungarian music education. The results of latest researches suggested that skill level of performers, difficulty of music pieces and knowledge for music pieces were crucial factors which influenced the preview time, as well.

Zsolt FÜLÖP:
Mathematics in Language,
pages 161-170

Within this paper, we are focusing on the relationships between Language and Mathematics. Both Language and Mathematics operate with sentences. The problem of formulating sentences is wider and richer in Language, this kind of problem in Mathematics is narrow but more precise. Considering a statement we set up the problem of its precise negation. In general we get various variants of answers, but Mathematics accepts only one precise answer. The main objective of this study is to analyse three statements and their negations with the tools of mathematics, such as conjunction, disjunction, implication, etc. More precisely, we attempt to highlight the students' way of thinking related to the problem of negation. A sample of 78 primary school students (8-th grade) and 65 high school students (11-th grade) participated in the study. The test-paper contained the statements and the students had to choose the perfect negation of the statement from six versions of answer. We have to mention that only one is considered the perfect negation, if we argue with the tools of Mathematics. The aim of the research was to find out how the students can handle this kind of problem by the use of their Language and Grammar knowledge, because of the fact that the tools of Mathematics necessary to solve the problems are contained in the 12-th grade curriculum. The results show that a small part of the students gave the right answer, namely the perfect negation of the statement. Our conclusion is that the Language and Grammar knowledge is not enough to find out the perfect negation of the statement, it is necessary the students be acquainted with the tools of Mathematics, especially with the tools of Mathematical logic. Our suggestion is that it is necessary to improve the students' logical thinking and their inclination to manipulate the rigorous rules of the Mathematics.

Learning and Teaching German Language at Kindergarten. Methodologies and Collection of Readings,
pages 171-180

The importance of foreign language learning is often emphasized by our parents, teachers. The world grows open, Europe gets closer to us if we speak other languages. We can have several opportunities if we make international contacts. Topic of my thesis is currently of high relevance in connection with the development and changes of our educational system. Every day, we have newer and newer foreign language educational programmes, activity books, audiobooks released. Our children have the chance to learn foreign languages sitting in front of television watching the most popular cartoon characters. Today, we can come across programmes aimed at children in various fields and forms. English is undoubtedly the most popular language to learn. There are no or only a few German programmes of this kind.

Natalia BORZA:
Does Specific Lexis Make Biology Texts Difficult? A Corpus-Based Lexical Analysis of the Register of Biology Texts,
pages 181-196

While considerable research has been conducted on analysing biology related research articles, relatively little is known about the register of biology textbooks written for secondary school students. To fill this lacuna, the present study aims to explore biology textbooks from a lexical point of view. This research sets out to describe the nature of the typical lexis prevalent in English language biology texts written for secondary school students. The purpose of the study is to gain insights into one of the possible reasons for which 10th grade bilingual students might find studying biology in English difficult. Within the register perspective, data was collected through a representative mini-corpus, and the frequency of lexical items was computer counted by using text analysing software program WordSmith version 5. In the process of analysis, words of the same root were lemmatized in order to find the most common specific word families of the register. Individual words and lemmas were manually sorted out into any of the following three categories: biology terms, academic English vocabulary, and general English lexis. Using the KWIC (key word in context) application of the same software, collocations of the specific lexis were searched. By describing the lexical environment of specific lexis, it is intended that the study will serve the purpose of giving assistance to biology ESP teachers. The findings of the research reveal that the biology corpus does not abound in biology terms; the use of academic English is rare; and it is general English lexis that is massively present in the register. The results imply that the use of specific lexis does not count for the difficulty bilingual students face when processing biology text. Implications for further investigation are discussed.

Methodological Features of Informatics Competencies of Primary School Teachers Formation,
pages 197-200

The article analyzes the different types of educational software used in the process of training for primary school teachers. The special feature of this software is that they both are the object of study and a tool of professional activity of primary school teachers. That's why computer use in primary schools should be based on teacher's knowledge of methods and techniques of working with educational software.

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