Practice and Theory in Systems of Education

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Editorial Board

Volume 9 Number 4 2014
ISSN 1788-2591 (Online)
ISSN 1788-2583 (Printed)

Attila PIVÓK:
The Mapping of Formal Education Participation and Foreign Language Knowledge of a Teacher Staff in a Primary School in Budapest,
pages 303-309

From the formal and non-formal learning, in this paper I would like to present how much the teachers in the given school participate in the formal education as learners. For this I will use the analysis of official documents of the teacher staff, for example the diplomas and other certificates. I would like to map the different tendencies and how many percent of the teacher staff continued his/her studies after getting the first diploma. I would like to analyze the foreign language knowledge, although I can rely only on the language certificates, but I am sure that this data will provide interesting facts.

The Theory of Multiple Intelligence: Application Possibilities in Teaching Music,
pages 310-324

Respecting diversity is one of the most important requirement of modern life and condition for effective functioning of the community. However, the truth is that we are not always willing to show respect to people whose preferences and behavior or levels of skill to perform some work differ from ours. Introducing and encouraging manifestation of diversity is inconsistently carried out in the educational process as well. Organization and realization of the educational process and learning conditions in general are the same for all students. The use of same one approach to teaching all students makes teaching less efficient and the quality of the acquired knowledge worse. Respecting for diversity in teaching and adapting of teaching process to individual abilities of students finds support in Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Application of this theory concept in teaching represents a possible solution for avoiding the disadvantages of traditional teaching concept. Although the educational perspectives of musical content and musical activities are often neglected in the classroom, with teaching music to students can be achieved a simultaneous and balanced development of all types of intelligence (according to first Gardner's classification). Therefore by encouraging all students to participate in music activities together we can ensure that same teaching content can be adapted and be "understandable" to students of different individual abilities and different preferences and motivation level. In this paper we will present some examples to how music, as universal tool, can engage all students so they develop not only their music abilities and skills, but also all types of intelligences.

The Assessment and Validation of Learning Outcomes Acquired in Non-Formal Learning Environment in Hungary,
pages 325-331

Recognition of knowledge acquired outside school education has become a primary issue in education development. In its recommendation on the recognition of the outcomes of non-formal and informal learning, the Council of the European Union (20th December 2012) requests that Member States establish national systems for the recognition of the outcomes of formal and non-formal learning by not later than 2018. This will make it possible for the citizens to acquire full or partial qualifications based on the knowledge and competences they acquired outside formal education. Regarding the fact that Hungary has also undertaken to elaborate a national validation system by 2018, it is necessary to develop a comprehensive national recognition system based on which a structured knowledge recognition system may be established, which will function within the framework of the domestic educational, training, institutional and legal system, and which will be in harmony with European standards. It is necessary to elaborate a model and system, which will be able to foster the re-integration of the most relevant potential target groups (such as groups of young people and adults with low levels of education) into the labour market and society.

Gábor BUDAI:
The Dual Role of Vocational Training in the Changed Economic Environment,
pages 332-338

The aim of my research was to work out that the skilled trades Hungary observed a significant loss of prestige crawl. Employment statistics for Hungary it can be observed that certain industries (construction and engineering) skills shortage has emerged as more and more people obtained their qualification without any kind of labor market demand. Examine the factors responsible for the formation of the situation and offered by the education policy as a solution to the dual vocational training presentation. The city was chosen to test new terrain Danube, as a result of this industry in the rapid technological development of processes, largely reflect the situation in Hungary.

Oleksandra BOZHOK:
Linguistic Competence in the Address of Foreign Language Teacher Training,
pages 339-343

The article deals with the notion of linguistic competence in the context of the preparation of teachers of foreign languages; indicated on the types and features. The benefits of language proficiency were outlined in the training of primary school teachers of foreign languages in higher educational establishments.

Reflections on Adults' Language Learning Experiences,
pages 344-349

The purpose of this article is to raise awareness of how language learners' performance and attitudes to learning foreign languages are shaped and influenced by several factors through the whole language learning process. Having taught adults for several years working as an ESP (English for Special Purposes) teacher in higher education for almost three decades I have had the opportunity to teach adults of different ages with various professional backgrounds and I have often discussed with my students their language learning experiences in order to learn from them as a teacher. From these informal talks, students' narratives and the semi-structured interviews that I conducted recently I have collected some typical features of language learning from the learners' perspective that may help teachers and instructors understand "both sides of the coin". After explaining the theoretical background of the topic in the first part of my paper, in the second part of my paper I intend to quote some extracts and identify some of the most typical elements affecting learners' experiences and attitudes that appear in the semi-structured interviews conducted with adults of different ages. In this way I would like to answer my research questions: What are the main factors that can contribute to positive or negative language learning experiences? How can language teachers help students develop and maintain a positive attitude to learning languages which will facilitate their lifelong language learning process? What challenges do language teachers face in adult language courses?

Erika Rozália VÍGH-KISS:
The Development of Talented Students,
pages 350-356

Research during the century beginning with Terman's (1925) work proved that talent is a complex concept, and numerous definitions and models have been developed since then. In all of them there are key factors like general abilities and special skills (Renzulli, Mönks, Tannenbaum, Czeizel) and other factors like "destiny-factor" at Czeizel, randomness at Tannenbaum and other environmental and social factors (school, family, social group). Creativity is a key element in WICS-modell (Sternberg, 2004). In schools the support of talented pupils is practically based on Renzulli's (1978, 1982) modell which underlines three main characteristics of talented pupils: (1) general and spesific skills above average level, (2) high-leveled task commitment, (3) creativity. Mathematical talent can be mostly developed during teenage and difficultly traced during the phases of development and change. The development of mathematical talent can also be enhanced outside formal school lessons in talent support camp for example. In my lecture I would like to present how to recognize, support it and further particulars of the experiences gained during our mathematics and physics-themed camps organized for the students of Comenius Grammar School (Zselíz, Szlovákia). We believe that the methods applied in the camps may be also succesfully used in the advocacy and support of talented students by other educators.

Acquisition of Basic Ethics in Primary Schools,
pages 357-362

General rules and behavioral norms determining our life are already acquired in early childhood, in kindergarten, even though in latter life stages individual progress may overwrite some of these rules. In Hungary from school year 2013/14 parents may decide for their children to learn Religion or Ethics in primary school. The name of the subject 'Ethics' may sound too strict, and could recall the old ages for some people; depicting an old teacher reading endless paragraphs of rules, commands and obligations from a thick book to the little students in uniform, sitting straight, with their hands at their back in the classroom. But the aim of Ethics classes is not making children scared, but to help them learn playfully, how they should behave in everyday life. It is important for them to understand why they should behave so, and make these patterns interiorize by time. Ethical education has three basic pillars, which are built and based on each other: knowledge of concepts and norms, thinking and ethically correct behavior. In our previous researches we examined the knowledge of primary school students about ethical concepts via questionnaires; and we also made a research on whether they apply it in real life as well. Relying on these results the current situation of the education of 9-10-year-old students will be introduced, including their achievements and deficiencies. Patterns of behavior, which are forced on young individuals always imply resistance, therefore at this age more sophisticated tools should be used for education, keeping experience and active learning in focus. Pedagogues need to provide an opportunity for students to experience the situations and find the socially preferred solution on their own. With the help of stories, simulations and the indirect guidance of pedagogues, children can build up their own value system. Discussions and debates provide a platform to get acquainted with expectations, express individual desires, diminish fears and build up a vision for the future. Interactive methods enhance the development of ethically correct thinking.

Towards Measuring the Access Dimension of Digital Literacy Using Simulation,
pages 363-371

This paper focuses on the access dimension of digital literacy (from among the seven: identifying, finding, storing, integrating, evaluating, creating and sharing information). The objective of the study is to introduce a pilot assessment using a new measurement instrument devised in Hungary. The test administered in May to June, 2014 in four different state schools in a major city in Hungary drew its sample (N=106) from grades 5, 8 and 10 students, whose tasks varied from simple multiple choice - on imitated online surfaces - to complex, simulated website search. The test (duration 45 minutes) was delivered through eDia online platform. With a total score of 20, the mean was 8.41 (SD=3.26). Significant correlations were found between the time allotted and the score achieved (r=.240; p=.013) indicating that a thorough understanding of the task and its proper completion are related to noticeable cognitive processes taking place rather than technological proficiency even for the Z generation. According to the one-way ANOVA conducted, no significant difference between the grades could be detected in terms of the time allotted (F=1.935; p=.150) or regarding the total score (F=1.395; p=.253). This together with the comparatively low results might suggest that development in the field of accessing digital information might commence at a further stage of confident use of ICTs at a higher age. This study is to provide evidence that the pilot test introduced serves as a solid basis of an assessment instrument being developed to gauge students' confidence in accessing information in digital environments and with further elaboration an effective means of assessment could be devised.

Borbála MÁTHÉ:
The School and the Outside World,
pages 372-376

The teaching profession can't be schematized and to provide uniformity, the basis of quality management in the teaching process is almost impossible. Teaching is a people to people profession and the personality, the capability and the circumstances (private and professional) of all parties (teachers, students, parents) alter the outcome. Moreover the effects are hard to detect and often appear delayed even after the school years. In an ideal world only perfect and adaptive people with extensive subject knowledge should be employed as teachers. But how could it be decided who is suitable for the profession? The fact that our personality changes during our lifetime also makes it impossible to foretell who is going to be a good teacher and who is not. During the different life and career stages the teachers' personality changes, they face different challenges. Considering the above mentioned facts I intend to examine to what extent these affect the student - teacher relationship and the actual work in the classroom. For this aim I questioned undergraduate teachers, trainee teachers and their mentor teachers about success, failure, everyday life, happiness, personal tragedies, professional targets and private life goals. Recently I have had the opportunity to participate in two extensive researches. One was about the professional concepts of the students of four Hungarian teacher training institutes (n: 153). The questions were aimed at the reasons why the students had chosen the teaching profession. I also asked about their future prospects and the ways of becoming a good teacher. The other research targeted trainee and mentor teachers about the interinfluence of their professional and private lives. The respondents (n: 150) honoured me with earnest answers about their everyday problems and happiness as well as about their career. In my presentation I would like to highlight some of the most relevant findings of these two surveys.

Job Demands Versus Resources: Workplace Factors Related to Teacher's Burnout,
pages 377-390

Job burnout seems to be a serious problem nowadays, especially among teachers, who experience role conflicts, work load and emotionally burdening situations. The symptoms, like decreased work efficiency, low level of motivation, negative emotions, physical problems and the tendency to avoid social relationships are influencing high number of employees worldwide. Certain professionals, for example, medical staff and teachers are more affected by burnout. These occupations seem to strain employees both mentally and emotionally. Empirical evidence claims that certain job demands are likely to provoke burnout, while resources at workplace can help employees to avoid the harmful effects of mental and emotional load. Our online survey investigated burnout among public education teachers (N=327), and examined its relationship with specific workplace factors. The goal of our study was to set up a model which can explain the occurrence of burnout with organizational and workplace aspects. We found significant positive correlation between job demands - like emotional strain and peer conflicts - and burnout factors. On the other hand, job resources - like the support of a superior and the possibility of personal improvement - were related negatively to burnout score. We also found that both emotional and professional social support of co-workers seem to correlate negatively with burnout. These results suggest that certain workplace factors are important in the development of burnout, while others seem to be useful to reduce the effects of job demands. The results also indicate that the social environment at the workplace could have significant impacts on burnout. Support of peers and superiors can be used as resource to solve everyday tasks, to maintain motivation and to aid professional development. In our paper we discussed our results focusing on burnout prevention in schools.

Best Practice? The Work of the Teacher Training Institute of the University of Debrecen, 1924-1949,
pages 391-399

There are several aspects of the national and international researches dealing with the history of higher education that would be worth considering as a basic research. The institutions, acts and regulations, the development of science, the changes in education history could be seen as the centers of the researches known to us that are based on historical documents. Our actual research project is constructed from several components, however, in the first place, it makes an attempt to reveal the effects and regional radiation of disciplinary and training centers, as well as the relation and synergy in educator training. Numerous studies, local publication and portrays were made about the educator training institutions and actors in the North Eastern region of Hungary, however, there are no overall analyses about the local and profession-immanent incentives of the expansion. The region that is very often called semi-peripheral in the special literature has features that make it worth researching from a social and education historical point of view. The parallel existence and silent competition of the state and several church maintainers can be mentioned as one, as well as the complexity of the settlement structure and the colorful collective of autonomies. Their influence in education, in the period under examination could be traced, although with changing intensity. Besides all these, the influence of the university in Debrecen on the training of educators and their trainers, as well as on the development of the pedagogical, academic environment and intellectuality could hardly be questioned. We want to examine how the values (represented by the educational sciences) were realized among the colleagues of the teacher training intellectual center and the students, how they adopted and formed the approach, research and education principles? How did the pedagogical contents transmitted in teacher training reflect the commissions of maintainers and the special orientation of academic centers (professional radiation, idea expansion)? And finally: what kind of a personal and professional co-operational network could be detected among the teacher body of the training places (examination of synergies)?

Barnabás SZILÁGYI:
Approaches of the Talent Research,
pages 400-403

I undertake the presentation of those theoretical connections and approaches in my study which examine the identified talents' thinking operations, learning abilities. Thinking is the process in which the new mental representation of the information comes into existence as the result of a new abstraction, inference, problem-solving. The thinking operations are the toolbars of the thinking ability which help to solve such subtasks that lead to the definite solution of the problems. The early identification of the individual patterns of thinking operations helps to define the competence development. In my opinion the early identification of the characteristics of thinking operations can be realized by the time of secondary studies. The individual patterns of thinking operations make the definition of personalised thinking profiles possible. In the case of defining the directed operations and fields of thinking of such a degree, the opportunity may arise to define the directions of individual development. The identification of thinking operations belonging to the competence areas of different trades, professions and the comparison of the individual's thinking profile may provide an opportunity to define the preferences when choosing an occupation and related development plans.

Developmental E-bibliotherapy, a New Method in the Light of a Pilot Study,
pages 404-412

Those informal learning possibilities that contribute to student's personal development demand a space among the tasks of educating and teaching institutions. These informal learning environments can be formed outside lessons, or they can be fitted into the activities of the whole-day school. The indirect communication, for example chatting, posting to each other are active parts of student's everyday activities, which more and more eliminate direct interpersonal communication and can have an effect on later social relationships, in the case of a workplace for example. However, because of its general incidence and popularity digital technology isn't evadable, and we have to reckon with its very strong motivational power. On e-bibliotherapy meetings the use of digital devices appear, which beside the development of digital competences, also functions as an inducing of personal interactions.

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Volume 1 Number 1 2006
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Volume 8 Number 1 2013
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Volume 9 Number 1 2014
Volume 9 Number 2 2014
Volume 9 Number 3 2014